On the warehouse floor, boxes of CDs, wood, copper heat sinks, non-PCB capacitors, transformers, aluminum heat sinks, lead-acid batteries, hard drives and other components of gutted electronics sit in forklift-ready cardboard boxes or Super Sacks which are themselves reused from the agricultural industry, where they previously held peanuts or other products. Circuits boards get pulled off, then the storage devices get crushed and shredded. HEPA filters clean the air, but workers on the line still get annual blood tests to check for heavy metals.
They stand on either side of conveyor belts, which take the electronics inexorably toward the shredder. Typically 12 tons per hour go into its gaping maw. Among other things, workers keep a keen eye out for batteries that might have been overlooked earlier in the sorting process. If one of those chemical-filled suckers makes it to the massive machine at the end of the line, a fire could result.
Sometimes the line gets jammed by a big piece of metal and they might have to reverse it two or three times, losing three to 20 minutes in the process. On one screen, video shows an eddy current separator , which uses magnets and a spinning drum to separate out non-ferrous metals like aluminum, copper and gold.
When a detector finds a bit of non-ferrous metal, one of jets will shoot a puff of air that sends the material flying through the air. As we watch, bits of aluminum pop off the conveyor belt into a separate chute. Sims employs people in Roseville, about 70 per shift, and the team can handle approximately 5,, pounds a month. The company runs 13 plants with 1, workers in the United States, including two other mega-shredder sites like the one in Roseville, and a couple dozen around the world.
Its Australian parent company, Sims Metal Management , operates more than facilities. When flat panel TVs and monitors replaced. Items are gathered by municipalities, rounded up at recycling events or simply dropped off by individuals — with big bumps around Earth Day and spring-cleaning time, according to Vasquez. Some loads might come from flood-damaged electronics or recalls.
While smartphones make up an increasing percentage of the e-waste stream, tons of old-fashioned cathode ray tubes surface during collection events. Vasquez likened it to being writing down the names of people who drank out of individual Pepsi cans.
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He chalked it up to a system that pays less for more work, since the state pays 39 cents per pound for both kinds of monitors and the flat panel reporting is more cumbersome. Regulation drives a lot of the recycling, but every state does it differently — some states, like Nevada, have absolutely no regulation whatsoever. Luckily, many businesses are taking a more pro-active approach to e-recycling and trying to raise awareness. Unfortunately, being in this club mostly sucks. Which takes all the fun out of it. Nobody is planning a revolution.
Given the right set of circumstances, an attacker can use this to completely decrypt sensitive information, such as passwords and cookies. However, with some clever engineering, that could change in the future. You should probably patch! For the details, read on. Some background: The problem with TLS is that it kind of stinks. Mostly this is due to bad decisions made back in the the mids when SSL was first designed.
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Have you seen the way people dressed back then? Only then does it CBC-encrypt the record. The critical point is that the padding is not protected by the MAC. This means an attacker can tamper with it by flipping specific bits in the ciphertext , leading to a very nasty kind of problem known as a padding oracle attack. In these attacks example here , an attacker first captures an encrypted record sent by an honest party, modifies it, then re-transmits it to the server for decryption.
If the attacker can learn whether her changes affected the padding — e. The TLS designers learned about padding oracles way back in , and immediately took steps to rectify them. This is a time-honored tradition in TLS design. The first band-aid was simple: This is because implementations of the time would first check the padding, then return immediately without checking the MAC if the padding was bad. That resulted in a noticeable timing differential the attacker could detect.
For instance, if the pad appears to be incorrect, the implementation might assume a zero-length pad and then compute the MAC. Unfortunately, not quite.
The TLS designers realized this, but by this point they were exhausted and wanted to go think about something else. So they left us with the following note:. This leaves a small timing channel , since MAC performance depends to some extent on the size of the data fragment , but it is not believed to be large enough to be exploitable , due to the large block size of existing MACs and the small size of the timing signal.
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This is partly due to advances in computing hardware: Under the right circumstances, this turns out to be enough to bring D TLS padding oracle attacks back to life. For the details, you should obviously read the full paper or at least the nice FAQ that Royal Holloway has put out. Before I can explain the attack, you need to know a little bit about how hash-based MACs work. While these are very different hash functions, the critical point is that each one processes messages in byte blocks.
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There are a few subtleties in here. The hash functions incorporate an 8-byte length field plus some special hash function padding, which actually means a one-block message can only contain about 55 bytes of real data which also includes the byte record header. So in summary: Go a single byte beyond that, and the hash function will have to run a whole extra round, causing a tiny hardware cycle delay.
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By repeating this process many, many thousand or millions! DTLS does not do this , which makes this attack borderline practical. Though it still takes millions of packet queries to execute. Killing the session limits the attacker to one decryption — and intuitively that would seem to be the end of it. So in practice the TLS attack would probably take days. In other words: The authors propose some clever optimizations that could take the TLS attack into the realm of the feasible for TLS in the near future.
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